A Song of Ice and FireAlphaGoAntivirusArtificial IntelligenceBashBod PressBusinessCharityChatbotChildrenComputerConflict ZoneCouchDBEbola VirusFM ReceiverGame of ThronesGeolocationGeorge R.R. MartinGuideIncorporationInformation SecurityIoTJavaScriptLawLearningLinus TorvaldsMedicine Mental IllnessNewsNoSQLOperating SystemRansomwareRansomware DayReviewRevolutionRobotsSHA-1San FranciscoScienceSmall BusinessSolar EclipseTechnologyThe Fourth Industrial RevolutionThe FutureTime ManagementUnix-likeVanilla ForumsWana Decrypt0rWelcomeWordpressWorld Bank GroupZero-day Vulnerability

Main Perspectives on Mental Illness

he World Health Organization estimates that about 300 million people around the world are suffering from depression, 60 million from bipolar affective disorder, and 21 million from schizophrenia. These statistics are by no means comprehensive because diagnostic criteria for mental illnesses are constantly revised.

The WHO concludes that one in four people in the world has been or will be affected by some mental or neurological symptom. This means that we ourselves or someone in our closest circle is or will someday be in need of psychological or psychiatric help.

So, What Does it Mean to Be Mentally Healthy?

Mental health is a state of relative emotional, psychological, and social well-being. The concept also covers the ability to cognitively perceive and retain information, adapt successfully to social and physical environments, handle stress, etc. In other words, the quality of our subjective experiences of living and relating to others is at the core of mental well-being.

So, what are the factors that determine the quality of our experiences? Let us have a look at the differences between the dominant perspectives on mental health and compare their practical implications.

Nature vs Nurture

For centuries now, medical and social sciences have been dominated by the Nature vs Nurture debate. It Is already evident, though, that there are no 100% biological, social or historical predictors of human experience or behavior, rather a complex interplay between our bodies, social environment, challenges we face in life and the ways we interpret them in our minds. The goal is to figure out which of the above factors are most influential preventing and treating mental health issues.

Ancient Perspectives on Mental Illness

The oldest perspective on mental illness is now referred to as the spiritual model. Up until the 19th century, it was believed that unusual experiences or actions were the result of spirit possession or other supernatural influences. Depending on culture and the behavior of the «possessed» individual, the society could regard the spirits as good or bad. Good spirits and the people communicating with them were often worshipped. The person inhabited by evil spirits was believed to be inherently sinful and malignant. Therefore, exorcism rituals resembled more of a torture than treatment.

Moral character model explained psychopathology in terms of character deficiencies and lack of virtue. This perspective presumably comes from ancient Greeks who viewed moral integrity as key to healthy and productive life.

Modern Approaches and their Implications

Nowadays, biological or medical model dominates mental health service systems throughout the world and serves as the theoretical basis for psychiatry as we know it. This model views mental conditions as caused by brain abnormalities or chemical imbalances. It implies that mental health conditions are mostly genetically predetermined and cannot be overcome by an individual without drug treatment or other medical interventions.

According to the social model, human behavior is determined by reinforcements of lack thereof from the immediate environment. It implies that there are causal connections between psychopathology and the conditions in which the individual was brought up and lives. This model also emphasizes the role of poverty, inequality and discrimination in producing mental health issues. The social approach implies that by shaping the immediate environment of an individual it would be possible to prevent severe mental disabilities. Though very popular in the past, this approach has several blind spots. First of all, it does not explain why different people react differently to similar situations and social determinants – some of them develop mental conditions and some do not. Secondly, just like the medical model, the social perspective views human psyche as completely conditioned, while the role of personal will remains unexplained.

Psychological model focuses primarily on mental representations that individuals form when interacting with the environment and making sense of the world. This approach does not deny the role of biological and social factors in the development of mental disorders, but the main emphasis is put on understanding the emotional experiences and cognitive patterns of the individual. Non-adaptive behaviors are modified by bringing into awareness and restructuring ineffective mental schemas. Despite broad clinical application, this perspective is often criticized for being too subjective and unscientific.

Biopsychosocial model of mental illness serves as the most popular alternative to medical approach. It views mental disorders as resulting from multiple interrelated factors (biological, psychological, social) and affecting several domains of human existence, not merely intellectual or emotional well-being. The strength of this approach lies in addressing mental disorders as complex phenomena and not reducing human personality to only one dimension. However, such holism breeds practical problems when it comes to choosing specific interventions.

More Questions than Answers

Is the concept of mental illness still valid? If so, what should we address first – medical conditions of the affected individual, their social environment and behavior or maybe cognitive and emotional patterns? What are the boundaries of professional help, given that mental health problems tend to sprawl across the whole life of the affected person?

These questions are still to be answered.

Related Coverage

Robot Thanks to the development of AI and IoT technologies, the use of robots in manufacturing and industry has risen considerably between 2016 and 2017. In fact, the worldwide shipment of robots rose from 294,000 to 387,000 in that time - a large inc.


There are certain new technologies that are very much on trend at the moment. These are techs that dominates conversations and is at the centre of media excitement, leading to much hype, fevered speculatio.


Ever since the space race (that ended in 1969) territories beyond Earth have been deemed to be one of final frontiers of human conquest. But how possible is it that space travel .


In the grand scheme of things, human life has not existed on earth for very long. While many species, such as crocodiles, date back 200 million years, modern humans have only been around for some 200,000 years. Despite our shor.


(Technology 3D print car via Pixabay) When it comes to new technology, I often find myself asking whether or not it is really necessary. The need for convenience in a fast-pac.


(Img src: Max Pixel) One of the biggest technological advancements of our time is 3D.


(Sunrise space outer via Pixabay) It seems almost a lifetime ago that the US and Russia were locked in a desperate struggle to reach space. Fifty years hence, and it seems we .


Free Antivirus Software Over 8 years have gone after Windows 7 was introduced it's as yet the most mainstream Windows out there. In any case, the sudden rise of the substantial scale ransomware disease demonstrated to us some unquestionable security escape clauses in Microsoft's fan top choice. Fundamentally, a lot of clients set aside the way that the obsolete Security Essentials ca.


The Internet of Things has had a huge impact on the way many industries are approaching the future, with lots of research centred around IoT, and the success of smartwatches has shown the clear potential in wearable technology. Combining IoT with clothing makes a lot of sense, as it takes advantage of items that are on our person for long periods of the day. Over the next few years, wearable te.


October 4th, 1957: the Soviet Union launched the very first satellite, Sputnik 1, into Space. It was the first time humanity had sent any object in to space. Twelve years later, in July 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon, paving the way for increasingly bo.


Although there have been many smaller developments, and numerous aesthetic changes along the way, the face of transportation has looked fairly similar for the past few decades. Despite promises of hover cars, our roads are still lined with four-wheeled vehicles, trains still run on tracks, and planes are still cramped and noisy. There have been advancements, and in the next few years you can ex.


Legal issues At some point in life, everyone gets an idea of starting their own business – be it that of dealing in diamonds, opening a restaurant or simply starting a bar they always wanted to open! It is always exciting to start a small business of your own and dreaming about it.


One of the most challenging tasks in computer programming is developing an OS and frankly, is not for everyone except the most hard core geekheads among you. In order to start with creating your very own OS let us start by viewing the basic definitions of what a BIOS or boot loader is and does. An operating.

January 20, 11 AM
AlphaGo Beginner's Guide

AlphaGo Everyone knows that DeepMind's AlphaGo defeated 18 times world champion Lee Sedol on March 9 2016 at the ancient Chinese game- Go. What’s fascinating is that the game of Go has as many possible moves as there are atoms in the universe. This motivated us to find out more about AlphaGo.


Last month, the World Bank Group published the World Development Report (WDR) 2018, the first-ever edition entirely focused on education. The report warns of a learning crisis in global education and the severity of this in the deprived areas. Shockingly, there are still around 260 million children who aren’t even enrolled in primary or secondary schools. Education is meant to equip stud.


Medicine is the most rapidly growing area of expertise. In recent decades, new technologies and scientific discoveries have changed the idea of the body and its diseases and at the same time the approach to the treatment of the whole person.


The Internet of Things The first three industrial revolutions were triggered by steam, electricity, and, and wired computers which transformed people’s way of life and manufacturing and brought digital capabilities to billions of people.


Opening your own business is a task that is certainly difficult and responsible, but experienced entrepreneurs will agree that real difficulties come when you start developing an already launched project.


Automation of business processes is no longer just an evolving trend in digital marketing. Today it is an integral part of a brand communication.


We all have stories about working in dysfunctional offices, with wacky colleagues and under stressful deadlines. But even this cannot compare to working in a conflict zone, a place that is ravaged by war.


Game of ThronesGeorge R.R. Martin is an American novelist, fantasy, sci-fi and short story writer. Most of the world got acquainted with him after screen adaptation of his epic saga "a Song of Ice and Fire".


Over the last years the art of time management gains popularity. Why so? The answer is very simple: we want to control our life. No wonder there are plenty of interesting techniques allowing us to properly schedule and manage our time.


Ebola Virus The Ebola virus causes a severe illness that is often lethal in the absence of treatment.

July 11, 09 AM
Welcome to Bod Press

Bod Press is a global social network for readers, journalists and companies engaged in writing and reading. The unique audience, fresh information, constructive communication, and collective creativity.


Bod Intelligent Antivirus This review is dedicated to the Bod Intelligent Antivirus developed by Bod Security. The purpose of the article is to show its functionality and demonstrate how it behaves in real conditions.

965 2

wordpress Automattic Company, the developer of WordPress, will no longer spend money on maintaining the office in San Francisco.


Computer Technology It seems that many years have passed, which made an eternity by the standards of the world of computer technology. And the reflection on past mistakes does not stop. And what would have happened if...


Robotic assistant Millions of American families buy automatic voice assistants to turn off the lights instead of themselves, order pizza and show movie program in the cinema.


The data about critical vulnerabilities in WordPress were published - they allow remote execution of shell commands and resetting the administrator password through the substitution of the Host header.

1162 1

More than 60,000 computers were attacked and infected with a virus-extortionist Wana Decrypt0r.


At some time, I had to work with one of the document-oriented DBMS – Apache CouchDB, but I had some difficulties with the search of the documentation.


The article describes how to work with push notifications about object events in browsers.


Imagine that you are sitting and waiting for someone in the car, and the poster of your favorite group has caught your eye.


We will organize the small distribution of free stuff for those who aspire to bring something good, kind, wise, and eternal to children.


Google's co-workers and the Centre of Mathematics and Computer Science in Amsterdam, presented the first algorithm generating collisions for SHA-1.


The idea of editing the user environment variables to elevate the rights in penetration testing is as old as the world.

Never miss a story by James Lincoln, when you sign up for Bod Press.
Sign up